Ingquza Hill Museum

Ingquza Hill Museum

The Pondo people subjection took place in the Eastern Transkei in the late 1950s and early 1960s. They revolted against the Bantu Authorities’ new system as described in the Bantu Authorities Act of 1951, which intended to place certain categories of administration in the hands of the blacks while retaining the decisive authority in the hands of the central government.

Bantu Authority’s System brought a hierarchy of tribal, district and territorial authorities while increasing the power of Chiefs to a certain level. The Bantu Authorities system was imposed from outside with little consultation.

The Pondo people opposed the implementation of the land reclamation programme or betterment scheme, with the belief that they would lose their land. Therefore, they withstand an attempt to divide arable land from grazing land. Furthermore, cause for subjection were Chiefs who collaborated with the Apartheid State. Chiefs were no longer figures in their own right, but were carrying out orders of central government and imposing them to Pondo people.

All this led to the development of a political movement that started when those opposed to the imposition of tribal authorities and the impending self-government of Transkei held meetings in the mountains of Ingquza. In the year 1960 on March, Mpondo people formed the hill committee to coordinate the activities of the peasant movement that later became known as ‘’ikongo’’ ( a xhosalisation of congress).

When the ikongo invited government officials and magistrates to hear their grievances, nevertheless their invitation was ignored. Chiefs were seen as traitors, the rebels started to attack everyone they believed to favour the Bantu Authorities.

Toward the end of 1959, violence broke out in the Isikelo Area in the District of Bizana, Eastern Pondoland when Mpondo people requested Saul Mabude, an Advocate of Bantu Authorities and Chairman of the District Authority to come and explain Bantu Authorities at a public meeting. However, Mabude was in fear of his life and, did not attend the meeting. As the result the furious Mpondo people burnt down his house.

Monday 9 am–4 pm Tuesday 9 am–4 pm Wednesday 9 am–4 pm Thursday 9 am–4 pm Friday 9 am–4 pm Saturday 9 am–1 pm Sunday Closed

Adults: free
Children & Students free
Donations Accepted

Corner Nelson Mandela Drive & Owen Street, Bhunga Building, Mthatha, 5009
047 501 9500